TWINE, Edgar E., Amos OMORE and Julius GITHINJI (2017) Uncertainty in smallholder milk production in Tanzania: implications for investment, CGIAR, Research program on Livestock.
Available at: Edgar Twine Livestock_brief3
In Tanzania, cattle are considered the most economically and socially important type of livestock.
Uncertainty and risk associated with livestock keeping are major concerns, particularly in the dairy industry—as the industry has significant potential to reduce poverty, improve nutrition and foster inclusive development in Tanzania.
Existing and prospective dairy farm managers need to equip themselves with the knowledge and skills in animal husbandry to adequately address production-related risks.
Dairy farm managers need to ensure they are feed self-sufficient. This could be achieved by allocating enough land to produce fodder, including maize specifically for maize bran.
Dairy enterprises would benefit from diversifying their income sources to help them cope with sudden changes in the market.
Dairy farm managers should adopt flexible approaches to decision making. This requires they have access to market information and knowledge of the implications of alternative production decisions.
Attaining inclusive dairy industry development will necessitate the Tanzanian government recognize that the impacts of uncertainty vary by the gender of the producer and type of value chain.
WIJERS, Gea D.M. (2019) “Including Women in Dairy Extension
Recommendations for the inclusion of female smallholders in dairy development support Thailand”, BMO, Wageningen University and Research.
The explicit inclusion of women in dairy extension services holds many challenges but could contribute to initiating a transformation in the decision-making pattern on dairy issues within the household. However, experiences show that the process of inclusion is not easy as both men and women seem to uphold the accepted status quo and maintain the gender gap in the agricultural sector. These actions are recommended to make change happen:
*In the future, more than setting numerical goals is needed to produce desired outcomes. A critical analysis of project organizations and their settings is required. New approaches may differ depending on, for instance, regional cultural norms, organizational history and environmental context as well as the different types of households (size of farm) and roles (leader, main producer) the target group females they are active in (see also: Auma Odiol et al. 2017).
*Formulating a gender strategy to guide the implementation of gender policies, including activity and output based indicators (see also: Mkenda Mugittu 2003)
* Women often use networks to gather information for decision-making and exploring new methods of work. These networks could be facilitated in several complementary ways, for instance,
1. by establishing real -life Communities of Practice,
2.by creating female-only social associations that meet regularly,
3. by starting smartphone-based group apps on issues that interest female dairy farmers, as well as
4. by establishing forums on a dairy development knowledge platform
Kick off meeting (February 2016)
In February 2016 we organized a Kick off meeting on the Wageningen University & Research campus.
All LIQUID partners and researchers participated in a joint effort to structure and plan the main program elements for the 5 years to come. Also, a PhD course on aspects of dairy development was offered at the WUR.
Updates and Progress meetings
20 June 2016 & 18 October 2016 / 28 March 2017 & 27 June 2017 & 10 October 2018 / 30 May 2018
Meetings with the Dutch partners to share information, get feedback on first findings and plan for the short- and longer term.
Mid-Term Evaluation and Capacity Building (January 2018)
Nairobi & Egerton University, Kenya
After the mid-term evaluation with the Global Challenges Program- NWO Wotro we visited the research locations of Simon Nyokabi and Mercy Mwambi in Kenya.
We continued on to Egerton University for a two-day workshop with our partners there.
Which was very inspiring for both lecturers and participants!
The results are available in this GCP factsheet: gcp2ip-liquid_midterm-factsheet
Presentations at the International Cooperative Association (ICA) 2018 Conference (Wageningen, 4-6 July)
Organized by Jos Bijman and supported by Agriterra, also PhD Mercy Mwambi presented at this event.
More information on ICA 2018 can be found at: https://www.ica2018.nl
Capacity Building (february 2019)
Sokoine University of agriculture, tanzania
In early February 2019 LIQUID academics visited our partner Sokoine University in Tanzania to conduct several workshops on dairy quality.
In interactive sessions we disseminated LIQUID findings as embedded in accepted knowledge on dairy quality improvement and cooperatives.
Also, we received feedback based on Tanzanian experiences and were able to visit some farms.
Our researcher for Tanzania James Ledo and contacts at Sokoine helped us with the resources to organize a successful workshop, they introduced us to the Tanzanian dairy sector, and they invited us to social events.
Presentations at the 7th CIRIEC International Research conference on the social and solidarity economy (Bucharest, 6-9 June 2019)
On this 7th conference of the International Centre of Research and Information on the Public, Social and Cooperative Economy (CIRIEC) Jos Bijman and Gea Wijers presented an article on Cooperatives as an inclusive organization which was received very positively. Gea Wijers also presented an individual paper based on LIQUID research that provided a comparison of cooperative ecosystems. Both papers will be made ready for peer-reviewed publication.