The LIQUID program has already inspired the following articles & theses.
The LIQUID program has already inspired the following articles & theses.
When no link is provided, the document is available upon request. Please mail to gea.wijers (at) wur.nl
- BIJMAN, Jos and Gea WIJERS (2019) “Exploring the inclusiveness of producer organizations”, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 41, 74-79.
Given the relevance of producer cooperatives in policy debates around rural development, agricultural sustainability and inclusive business, there is surprisingly little information on whether these cooperatives are inclusive of smallholders. This paper reviews conceptual discussions and empirical evidence on the notion of a producer cooperative as an inclusive business. Three organisational characteristics may affect the inclusiveness of producer cooperatives: community-orientation versus market-orientation; open versus closed membership; who is represented in the governance of the cooperative. When cooperatives evolve from community-orientation towards market-orientation, they are likely to become less inclusive.
- WIJERS, Gea D.M. (2019) “A comparison of cooperative ecosystems: what institutions can bring transformation?”, Review of Applied Socio-Economic Research, 18 (2), 146-159.
The social and solidarity economy has become part of serious economic discourse on ‘downsizing’ our economies towards more local and sustainable development. The focus on localizing our consumption, supply, trade, and demand offers a counterpoint to the automated belief in the global market. This article explores the challenges and opportunities for a social and solidarity economy to be built on cooperative organizations by discussing what institutions are vital to the cooperative ecosystem in local and sustainable development. The institutions needed to facilitate cooperatives are addressed in two dimensions. First, what are the internal and external challenges to the cooperative organization as an inclusive social business model? This part of the inquiry distinguishes between cooperatives as either emancipatory or context-dependent organizations. Second, what is, in practice, the role of the institutional context in cooperative business strategy formulation? This section discusses the dichotomy between cooperatives as community-based or market-driven organizations. Findings provide insights into the dynamics that create balance in community-driven ideas, economic ambitions, institutional infrastructures, and the cooperative model. In conclusion, it is suggested that, paradoxically, a strong centralized government is a major determinant of the success of a more localized and sustainable economy.
- LEDO, James, Kasper A. HETTINGA, Jos BIJMAN, Pieternel A. LUNING (2019) “Persistent challenges in safety and hygiene control practices in emerging dairy chains: The case of Tanzania”, Food Control, 105, 164-173.
Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2019.05.011
In emerging economies, the demand for milk and milk products is growing speedily, leading to rapidly evolving dairy chains. However, milk quality and safety are not yet up to standard, despite substantial efforts to support actors in these emerging dairy chains. The aim of this study was therefore to get insight in possible causes of persisting poor milk safety and hygiene practices. The Tanzanian dairy chain was taken as a case for an emerging dairy chain, because of its evolving nature and potential for growth. Depicting the organization of the dairy system involved a value chain analysis using focus group discussions and interviews with chain actors (in total 71). Face-to-face in-depth interviews and systematic on-site observations at actor locations in two different regions provided insights into current safety and hygiene control practices from the farm to the processor. Furthermore, 22 farmers were interviewed to examine how they perceived existing support programs in assisting their safety and hygiene practices. Data showed that the organization of control activities and enforcement of requirements on dairy quality is not uniform across the dairy chain. Overall, safety and hygiene practices were basic or rudimentary. Preventive practices related to animal health care, hygiene, and feed storage control, were mostly lacking. Milk cooling is not a common practice along the dairy chain, monitoring of milk safety and quality parameters is limited, particularly for pathogenic bacteria, indicating a risk for milk safety. Farmers perceived the support of the non-commercial program as more supportive to their on-farm safety and hygiene control practices than the commercial program. To avert public health risks of the increasing milk consumption, multiple safety and hygiene control practices require significant improvement. Support programs could more explicitly enhance awareness and competences on these safety and hygiene practices
- WIJERS, Gea D.M. (2018) “Inequality regimes in Indonesian dairy cooperatives: understanding institutional barriers to gender equality”, Agriculture and Human Values, 1-15. 1007/s10460-018-09908-9.
Available at: AHUM-S-18-00279
Women are important actors in smallholder farmer milk production. Therefore, female input in the dairy cooperatives is essential to dairy development in emerging economies. Within dairy value chains, however, their contributions are often not formally acknowledged or rewarded. This article contributes to filling this gap by adopting a multileveled institutional perspective to explore the case of dairy development in the Pangalengan mixed-sex dairy cooperative on West Java, Indonesia. The objective is to add evidence from the implicitly gendered dairy development practice in Indonesia to the current agenda for gender and development as well as identify pathways for future research on dairy development that will help it do better in practice. Central to the exploration is a discussion of formal and informal institutions as part of the dynamics of the inequality regimes in dairy cooperatives. Evidence from the implicitly gendered dairy development practice in Pangalengan cooperative shows, among others, distinct differences between the participation of male and female target groups in dairy development extension, as well as farm sizeand resource-related trends in ‘masculinization’ and ‘feminization’ of the smallholder farmer household. The conclusions contribute to debates on more resilient, thus sustainable working relations in food chains, gender equality and social justice in agricultureas well as cooperative studies.
- NYARUGWE, Shingai P., Anita LINNEMAN, Loveness K. NYANGA, Vincenzo FOGLIANO and Pieternel A. LUNING (2018) “Food safety culture assessment using a comprehensive mixed-methods approach: A comparative study in dairy processing organisations in an emerging economy”, in: Food Control, 84, 186-196.
Available at: Luning et al SN_FSC_mixed_method_assessmentJFCO_5731
Food safety challenges are a global concern especially in emerging economies, which are in the midst of developmental changes. The challenges are directly or indirectly related to the behaviour and decisionmaking of personnel, and to an organisation’s food safety culture. This study evaluated the prevailing food safety culture in three Zimbabwean dairy companies of different size (multinational, large and medium) using a comprehensive mixed-methods approach. Four key elements were assessed, namely enabling conditions, employee characteristics, actual behaviour and microbial safety performance. Cardaided interviews provided data on enabling conditions, and questionnaires and storytelling on employee characteristics. Observations and microbial analysis assessed actual behaviour and microbial safety performance, respectively. The multinational company demonstrated a more proactive food safety culture compared to the other companies, which operated at an active level as exhibited by multiple inconsistencies in the enabling conditions and compliance behaviour. The large company had a moderate microbial safety performance even though it operated in a potentially risky situation, which could have been mitigated by the food safety management system. The medium-sized company had a poor microbial safety performance likely related to noncompliance with sanitation requirements, negative attitudes towards personal hygiene and an ambivalent attitude towards sanitation. Our study demonstrated the ability of the mixed-methods approach to assess and distinguish an organisation’s prevailing food safety culture into identified classification levels (reactive, active, proactive). Specifically, storytelling elicited respondents to share stories, which reflected the food safety and hygiene control attitudes.
- BIJMAN, Jos (2018)”Exploring the Sustainability of the Cooperative Model in Dairy: The Case of the Netherlands”, in: Sustainability, 10, 2498.
Available at: http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/10/7/2498
Dairy cooperatives have existed in the Netherlands for more than 130 years. They hold
a joint market share of more than 80% since the 1950s. This suggests that cooperatives are durable organizations in the dairy industry of the Netherlands. However, the number of dairy cooperatives has declined tremendously, with only five processing cooperatives left in 2015. The paper explores the paradox of high cooperative market share over a long period of time with a steady decline in the number of cooperatives. This historical account of the Dutch dairy industry distinguishes four periods of cooperative evolution. Classical theoretical explanations for the existence of cooperatives, such as bargaining power and transaction costs economics, can explain the rise of dairy cooperatives.
However, they cannot sufficiently explain the long term success of the cooperative model in the Dutch dairy industry. Additional explanations can be found in institutional theory, including the impact of an enabling institutional environment.
- TWINE, Edgar, E., Omore, A., & Githinji, J. (2018) ‘Uncertainty in milk production by smallholders in Tanzania and its implications for investment’ International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, 21, 53-72.
The study evaluates the impact of risk on enterprises of smallholder male, female and young milkproducers in Tanzania’s formal and informal dairy value chains. It also examines the effect of uncertainty on the decision to invest in milk production in both value chains. Results indicate that youths in the informal value chain face the greatest level of risk followed by men in the formal value chain, and then men in the informal value chain. Women in both value chains and youths in the formal value chain face relatively low risk. Overall, milk production in the informal chain is found to be substantially riskier than production in the formal chain. Optimal investment triggers are found to be much larger than the conventional triggers and are sensitive to volatility of returns.The results’ policy and practical implications for inclusive dairy industry development in Tanzania are highlighted.
- OURABAH HADDAD, Nora, Giel TON, Mohamed Taher SRAÏRI and Jos BIJMAN (2017) “Organisational Challenges of Moroccan Dairy Cooperatives and the Institutional Environment“, in: International Journal of Food System Dynamics, 8 (3), 236-249.
Marketing cooperatives in developing and transition countries face challenges when they aim to strengthen their competitiveness. One of these challenges relates to improving the quality of the products delivered by their members. Another challenge relates to the financial sustainability of the cooperative, as cooperatives have to choose between paying out a surplus to members and retaining it in the organisation. As these problems are not specific to one organisation, and public policies often affect the scope for individual cooperatives, we explore how the institutional environment helps in reducing those challenges. We present a case study of the Moroccan dairy industry, exploring how the institutional environment has affected the development and performance of dairy cooperatives. The methods used were in-depth semi-structured interviews within six dairy cooperatives. Findings point to the weak coordination between the main value chain actors. We also found a lack of financial instruments to facilitate investments in adequate quality assurance equipment and capacity development programs. Finally, we found a perceived lack of support from state policies vis-as-vis smallholders and their cooperatives.
- NYARUGWE, Shingai P., Anita LINNEMAN, Gert Jan HOFSTEDE, Vincenzo Fogliano and Pieternel A. LUNING (2016) “Determinants for conducting food safety culture research”, in: Trends in Food Science and Technology, 56, 77-87.
Background: Foodborne outbreaks continue to occur regardless of existing food safety measures indicating the shortcomings of these measures to assure food safety. This has led to the recognition of food safety culture as a key contributory factor to the food safety performance of food establishments. Scope and approach: The aim of this paper is to identify determinants for conducting food safety culture research, using the systems approach as the underlying philosophy to guide the structured reconsideration
of national, organisational and safety culture literature, in view of food safety.
Key findings and conclusions: Food safety culture is complex and many interlinking factors are at play. The analysis of ‘culture’ literature showed that food safety culture research should acknowledge the impact of national culture, specify hierarchical level(s) (strategic, tactical, and operational), establish underlying mechanisms, and consider the company’s food risks and context characteristics. Major elements to be considered in food safety culture research include organisational and administrative characteristics (i.e. food safety vision, communication, commitment, leadership, training), technical facilities/resources (i.e. food hygiene/safety tools, equipment, & facilities), employee characteristics (i.e. attitudes, knowledge, perceptions and risk awareness), group characteristics, crucial FSMS characteristics, and actual food safety performance. Methodological requirements for food safety culture research include use of the systems approach, measurable indicators, classification systems for differentiated assessment, and use of multiple methods to enhance research validity. The identified food safety culture research determinants provide an underpinned and transparent starting point to the common understanding and research of food safety culture.
- TON, Giel, Nora OURABAH HADDAD, Jos BIJMAN, Mohamed SRAÏRI and Patience MSHENGA (2016) Organizational challenges and the institutional environment: a comparative analysis of dairy cooperatives in Kenya and Morocco. Wageningen, Wageningen University & Research, Report 2016-088. 42 pp.
Available at: https://edepot.wur.nl/399770
This study analyses the relationship between dairy cooperatives in Kenya and Morocco and their institutional environments. It compares ten Moroccan and Kenyan dairy marketing cooperatives and suggests possible development strategies, support programmes and enabling policies in order to address two important organizational challenges, namely effective quality assurance systems and attractive and cost-efficient payment modalities for members. We discuss ways in which the institutional environment can be strengthened in overcoming these challenges, by looking into three areas: internal organizational strengthening of the cooperative sector, public support with conducive policies and regulations, and the facilitation of multi-stakeholder platforms to discuss, propose and implement these policies.
- Marango, Tumaini K. (2019) Assessing the usefulness of dedicated training in enhancing safety and hygienic practices of dairy farmers in Tanzania, MSc Food quality and safety assurance, Sokoine University of Agriculture. Supervisors: Pieternel Luning and James Ledo
This study assessed the usefulness of dedicated training in enhancing safety and hygienic practices of dairy farmers in Tanzania. The training was designed based on the theory of planned behaviour and food hygiene training model. Identification of training needs was done through analysis of actual safety and hygienic practices from a previous study. The previous study assessed actual safety and hygienic control practices of farmers and status of microbiological safety of fresh milk in Tanzania.The results showed that dedicated farmers’ training program can be useful in changing knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and behavior intention regarding hygienic milking. With a dedicated training focused on specific training needs of farmers, knowledge of farmers increased appreciably across three days of training using three different strategies. In addition, as a result of the knowledge gained, the different components of theory of planned behaviour i.e. attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and behaviour intention saw changes. Lastly, having periodic refresher trainings on safety and hygienic milking will make farmers stay alerted all the time which will minimize forgetting of the learned content, favoring the maintenance of knowledge. Further research on farmers’ training should include onsite-observations to explore the effect of training in farmers’ setting.
- Odhiambo, Mary J. (2018) On-farm quality control practices of smallholder dairy farmers and aflatoxin M1 levels of fresh milk in Morogoro and Tanga regions of Tanzania, MSc Food quality and safety assurance, Sokoine University of Agriculture. Supervisors: Jamal Kussaga and James Ledo
This study aimed at assessing on- farm feed quality and safety control practices and how such practices influence aflatoxin M1 contamination of raw cow milk from Morogoro and Tanga region of Tanzania. Structured questionnaire, observation checklist and food safety assessment tool were used to collect information on feed handling practices from thirty-eight smallholder dairy farmers. Seventy two milk samples for AFM1 analysis were collected from twenty-four farmers from two districts in two separate villages, namely Mvomero (Wami Dakawa and Manyinga) and Lushoto (Ngulwi and Mwangoi) districts. Analysis of aflatoxin M1 contamination of raw milk was done with Quantitative Rapid Test known as AflasensorQuanti 0.5ppb –KIT078. Hierarchical cluster analysis on feed quality and control practices from the study areas resulted into two clusters; cluster 1 (n=22) and cluster 2 (n=16) smallholder dairy farmers. The study showed that farmer practices were very varied across the two regions with no distinct composition of farmers to any specific location of the two districts. Most farmers performed at basic levels of practice as far as feed quality and safety control practices are concerned. Of the analyzed milk samples, 20.8% (5/24) had values exceeding USDA limit of 500ppt. Despite operating at very basic levels, 79.2% (19/24) of the samples had values within acceptable limits. This can be attributed to shorter feed storage duration among the smallholder farmers. However, improvement in the feed handling practices is still necessary for safer milk for the final consumer due to the dominant informal marketing of raw milk.
- Mwabulili, Fred J. (August 2018) Assessing the actual safety and hygiene control practice of farmers and the status of microbiological safety of fresh milk in Tanzania, MSc Food Quality Management, Food quality and design group, Wageningen University and Research. Supervisors: Pieternel Luning and James Ledo
Recent studies carried out in parts of Tanzania indicated that majority of marketed milk is poor in microbiological quality. This situation is an indication that the safety control practices along the chain may be lacking in optimal performance and offers opportunities for improving practices in the chain to ensure the microbiological safety of fresh milk. This study describes the preventive measures and monitoring practices that influence the microbial load in raw milk at the farm level. Also, the status of microbiological safety of fresh milk was determined. A tool was developed to differentiate the safety and hygienic practices of the farmers into different levels.
- Andhani, Puspa Rizki (January 2018) Young Farmers’ Participation in Kenyan and Indonesian dairy cooperatives, MSc thesis, Management Studies, Wageningen University & Research. Supervisors: Gea Wijers and Jos Bijman
In the Indonesian and Kenyan dairy sectors, dairy cooperatives have an important function as an intermediary between dairy farmers, milk processors and the dairy industry. As the farming population continues to age and large numbers of farmers appear to have no successor, the youth is showing no interest to engage in dairy cooperatives. It is necessary to understand how crucial youth’s role to participate as young dairy farmers and cooperative members. Thus, objectives of this study are to identify the importance of young farmers’ roles in dairy cooperatives, to explore drivers and constraints based on young farmers characteristics, sociocultural and economic factors that influence their participation young farmers’ participation in Indonesian and Kenyan dairy cooperative. This will help us to identify critical areas for further research on youth participation in dairy cooperatives, as well as possible recommendations to enhance young farmers’ participation which further used to improve the dairy development and to tackle youth unemployment issues.
- Postmus, Andrea (November 2017) Milk Quality in the Kenyan Highlands, Research report practical internship, Animal Production Systems group. Supervisors: Simon Nyokabi and Simon Oosting
Milk production in Kenya is relatively high, yet milk quality is poor. This poses public health threats, reduces the shelf-life of milk and limits the quality of processed milk products. Most of the milk is produced by smallholders and is marketed informally; quality control is limited. Research was carried out in the counties Laikipia, Nakuru, and Nyandarua. A map indicating the distance from the major towns was created to categorise the samples from peri-urban location (PUL, <15 km), mid-rural location (MRL, 15-50 km) or extreme-rural location (ERL, >50 km).
Results of the milk analysis show that the milk composition was conform the Kenyan milk standards. Mean fat contents (> 3.25%) and the solids-not-fat (SNF >8.50%) were above standard, but mean protein contents (<3.50%) were slightly below. The SCC was highest in ERL (12.0%) followed by PUL (9.4%) and MRL (4.9%). Water was added to 16.7% of the samples. The fraction of samples adulterated with water decreased significantly as the distance to the market increased (PUL = 25.2%, MRL = 14.3%, ERL = 12.2%). Most samples with E. coli were in ERL, while PUL and MRL had more Pseudomonas spp. Aflatoxins and antibiotic residues were not tested for, yet they do form a problem in the Kenyan dairy chain according to literature.
- Sportel, Hielke M. (July 2017) Strategic Alliances in the Zambian Dairy Chain, MSc thesis Management, Economics & Consumer Studies. Supervisors: Jos Bijman and Jacques Trienekens
The objective of this research is to determine which strategic alliances are currently being used by milk collection centres (MCC’s) in the Zambian dairy industry and why these specific strategic alliances are being used. A literature study was conducted to understand forms and determinants of strategic alliances and to generate a base for data collection on the MCC’s in Zambia. Detailed data was collected from 10 MCC’s, which can be considered as a representative sample of the total population of 77 MCCs. The result show a total of 5 forms strategic alliances currently being used by MCC’s in the Zambian dairy chain: horizontal action sets, horizontal cooperative agreements, unions, vertical action sets, and vertical cooperative agreements. MCCs had strategic alliances with 11 different alliance partners. The main reasons entering strategic alliances are the marketing of milk, access to farming inputs, access to feed, access to training, and access to NGO support.
- Van Noppen, Marieke (March 2017) Inclusiveness of dairy development interventions and the support to safety control measures at smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania, MSc thesis Food quality & design. Supervisors: Pieternel Luning, Jos Bijman and James Ledo.
Since raw milk is a vulnerable product, safety control measures (SCMs) are needed to reduce the chance on consumption of foodborne pathogen contaminated milk. Since there are shortcomings in the SCMs in Africa, interventions are needed to improve the milk safety. In addition, interventions should be inclusive of women and youth and recognize their voice and needs. This report describes the current SCMs, the support of the interventions to the SCMs and the extent of the inclusiveness of the interventions towards women and youth.
- Wilson, Charles Wilson (March 2017) Assessment of milk quality along the dairy value chain in Mbeya and Songwe Region, Southern highlands of Tanzania, MSc Animal Sciences. Supervisors: Simon Oosting and Simon Nyokabi.
Currently, the demand for milk products in Tanzania is higher than the domestic production and supply. Milk quality management along the dairy value chain is important to reduce microbial contamination that may cause milk-borne diseases to humans. The main objective of this study was to assess the existing dairy value chain and evaluate different factors affecting milk quality in urban (UR), peri-urban (PU) and rural (RU) locations in Mbeya and Songwe region in the southern highlands of Tanzania.
- Bingcheng, Lu (2016) Development of a diagnostic tool to assess the causes of safety problems of raw milk production in China, Msc thesis Food Quality Management. Supervisors: Pieternel Luning, Elsa Antunes Fernandez and James Ledo.
The Chinese dairy industry is growing fast in recent years, which leads to an expanding demand for raw milk. However, deficiencies in raw milk safety have been reported on most Chinese farms. This MSc thesis develops a diagnostic tool that is used to assee the causes of the safety problems. Crucial technological and managerial as well as context factors are identified in this research which have high influence on safety control activities of raw milk production. Microbial and chemical contaminants (somatic cell count, bacteria count and antibiotic residues) are the main safety hazards this dissertation focuses on. There are four parts (receiving incoming materials, keeps cows healthy, milk activities and storage) included in the production line which are all discussed.
- Ekpa, Onu (2016) Assessment of factors influencing the control of raw milk safety in Kenya and the roles of inclusive business model [.s.], MSc thesis Food Quality Management. Supervisors: Pieternel Luning, Elsa Antunes Fernandez and James Ledo.
The dairy sector in Kenya has recorded a steady grown in productivity over the last decade. In spite of development, dairy consumers appear to be predisposed to food safety risk emanating from the farm. This paper describes the factors influencing the crucial control measures for microbial and chemical contaminants (aflatoxin M1 and antibiotic residues) in raw milk and how inclusive business models could contribute to improvement of these control practices to achieve the production of safe raw milk. Several critical factors have been identified as major farm activities and validated by experts. The research framework gives a comprehensive assessment of not just the technical factors influencing the safety of raw milk but also the context factor and managerial factors. Critical analysis of different inclusive business models and their impacts on dairy safety was carried out.
- Treakle, Jordan (2015-2016) Agricultural cooperatives and the social economy in Kenya’s changing governance landscape, MSc Thesis, Managerial Studies Group, Wageningen University and Research. Promotor/Supervisor: Jos Bijman
This research aims to gain insight into the performance of Kenyan agricultural producer organizations in supporting their farmer membership in a changing governance environment. As Kenyan agriculture becomes increasingly liberalized and embedded in regional and global agricultural markets, Kenyan small-scale farmers, and the farmer organizations that support them, are increasingly facing new challenges requiring adaptation and innovation. In particular, mounting pressures to commercialize the dairy sector have important implications for rural livelihoods and farmer rights in Kenya. Thus drawing on the fields of cooperative theory, political economy, new institutional economics, and rural sociology, and utilizing qualitative research methods, this research produces insight into how the services and activities of agricultural producer organizations, and in particular dairy cooperatives, are part of a social economy, the agricultural policies that frame this engagement, and the implications for these organizations’ efforts to adapt to a changing governance landscape.